Precepts To Be Observed In The Village

Precepts to be observed in the village

There are twenty- four disciplinary precepts to be observed in the village outside the temple. The two precepts among them regarding the wearing of robes were described earlier. The other twenty-two are as follows.

  • Susauvuto antaraghare gamissāmiti sikkhā karauīyā.

 One should travel in the village in a well-disciplined manner. Disciplined travel means walking with measured step, without swinging the arms, running or jumping. A bhikkhu should travel sedately and serenely. Riding cycles and driving motor vehecles become unsuitable for bhikkhus not because of a particular offence but because they are not conducive to maintaining a sedate and serene behaviour pattern.

  • Susauvuto antaraghare nisīdissāmīti sikkhā karauīyā.

One must sit in the village in a well-disciplined manner. One should not throw about arms and legs.

  • Okkhittacakkhu antaraghare gamissāmiti sikkhā karaniyā.

 One must travel with the head down in the village. Should not go about looking around. Looking down should be at a distance of six feet. It is not wrong to look further at places with potential danger. It is possible to develop much defilements due to seeing objects by looking around when travelling. Should get used to contemplating on some kammaiihāna (subject of meditation). Should develop an understanding about gatapaccāgata vata. It cannot be  given here for reasons of brevity.

  • Okkhittacakkhu antaraghare nisīdissāmīti sikkhā karauīyā.

 When in a house in the village, should remain looking down. It is not wrong to look up when in danger.

  • Na ukkhittakāya antaraghare gamissāmiti sikkhā karauīyā.

 One must not travel with the robe raised up. A bhikkhu on alms round should take out the bowl without exposing the body. What is meant by this precept is raising the robe to a level that exposes the belt and the stomach, as stated in the vimativinodanī sub-commentary. However, it has to be mentioned that it is unpleasent to raise the robe even to some extent while walking.

  • Na ukkhittakāya antaraghare nisīdissāmīti sikkhā karauīyā

 One must not sit in the inner village with the robe raised. Taking out something, which is under the robe, must be done without exposing the body.

  • Na ujjhaggikāya antaraghare gamissāmiti sikkhā karauīyā.

 One must not laugh aloud while travelling in the inner village. If some incident occurs, it is not an offence to laugh without making a loud noice.

  • Na ujjhaggikāya antaraghare nisīdissāmīti sikkhā karauīyā.

 One should not laugh aloud when in the village. It is unsuitable for bhikkhus to laugh aloud like drunkards inside the temple even though there is no precept against it. Laughing is an indication of a person’s nature. Disciplined high- minded people do not laugh aloud at any place.

  • Appasaddo antaraghare gamissāmiti sikkhā karauīyā.

 One should not travel the village speaking with a loud voice.

  • Appasaddo antaraghare nisīdissāmīti sikkhā karauīyā.

 One should not speak aloud while in the inner village. It is adequate to speak loud enough, so that a person who is three yards away can hear. Speaking loud enough to be heard beyond that is unsuitable. People with serene behaviour, who are intelligent, do not speak with a very loud voice. Speech is also an indicator of people’s nature. Looking at the world investigatively shows that loudness of speech increases with indisciplined nature. Although these two precepts are not required within the temple, bhikkhus should practise the speaking in a suitable manner at all places. Some people have a strong voice from birth.They should consciously practice soft speech. Disciplined people do not speak with a raised voice. Bhikkhus should also learn to speak to the extent that is required. It is not an offence to deliver Dhamma talks aloud.

  • Na kāyappacālakan antaraghare gamissāmiti sikkhā karauīyā.

 One must not travel the village, swaying from side to side as a drunken man. Must travel quietly with head and body erect. It is not and offence for the sick who are unable to travel quietly to do otherwise.

  • Na kāyappacālakan antaraghare nisīdissāmīti sikkhā karauīyā.

 One should not be swaying the head and the body when sitting in the village.

  • Na bhāhuppacālakan antaraghare gamissāmiti sikkhā karauīyā.

 One should not swing the arms when travelling in the village.

  • Na bhāhuppacālakan antaragharē nisīdissāmīti sikkhā karauīyā.

 When sitting in the village, should not swing the arms.

  • Na sīsappacālakan antaraghare gamissāmiti sikkhā karauīyā.

 On should not shake the head while travelling in the village.

  • Na sīsappacālakam antaraghare nisīdissāmīti sikkhā karauīyā.

 When sitting in the village, should not shake the head.

  • Na khambhakato antaraghare gamissāmiti sikkhā karauīyā.

 One should not have one or both hands on the lap while travelling in the village.

  • Na khambhakato antaraghare nisīdissāmīti sikkhā karauīyā.

 When sitting in the village, should not keep hands on the lap.

  • Na oguuIhito antaraghare gamissāmiti sikkhā karauīyā

 One should not have the head covered while travelling in the village.

  • Na oguuIhito antaraghare nisīdissāmīti sikkhā karauīyā.

 When sitting in the village, do not cover the head. These two precepts do not result in an offence if broken by mistake, due to an illness or by one who lives in the village.

  • Na ukkuIikāya antaraghare gamissāmiti sikkhā karauīyā

 One should not travel in the village on his toes or heels. It is not an offence to do so due to an ailment.

  • Na pallatthikāya antaraghare nisīdissāmīti sikkhā karauīyā.

 One should not sit in a pallatthikāya position in the village. Hatthapallatthikāya – dussapallatthikāya are two types of pallatthikāya. Hatthapallatthika is sitting on the floor or a low chair with knees pointing upwards and held together by the hands. It is an unpleasent way of sitting. Dussapallatthika is siting on a low chair or the floor with knees pointing upwards and crossed legs held together by the robe. It is a mode of sitting that can cause an old robe to tear. When in the village sitting in either one of these modes is an offence. It is not an offence for a sick person who is unable to sit in any other manner to do so.